On 29 May 2004, Maurice Strong for appointed as
Honorary Professor of the Peking University

Cocoyoc Declaration (French)


Download a pdf document of the Cocoyoc Declaration in French. Click Here.

Maurice Strong: background

Maurice Strong has played a unique and critical role is globalizing the environmental movement. Secretary General of both the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, which launched the world environment movement, and the 1992 Rio Environmental Summit, he was the first Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Maurice F. Strong (born April 29th, 1929, in Oak Lake, Manitoba) has had a career in both business and public service, primarily in the fields of international development, the environment, energy and finance.

Great Depression

Strong grew up in a poor family in a small town in Manitoba during the Great Depression, in which the poverty and hardships suffered by his family and most others made a deep and enduring impression on him. At an early age, he questioned the justness of a system in which people had so many needs but could not obtain the work that would enable them to meet those needs. When the family began to receive regular income for the first time after his father joined The Royal Canadian Air Force following after the outbreak of World War II, he was struck by the irony that it took a war to produce the jobs and the resources that were not available during the depression.

Despite their poverty, his responsible and hardworking father and his enlightened and intelligent mother, a former teacher, gave their children a sound and happy, though necessarily austere, family life. His school principal, a convinced socialist, subjected young Maurice to a combination of strict discipline and the opportunity to accelerate his learning to the point where he had completed high school to university entrance level by the age of 14. At the same time, he devoted himself to the self-education which he has continued throughout his life, spending much time alone in nature observing and trying to understand its wonders and its cycles.

A stowaway.

Maurice Strong with an Eskimo family
Maurice Strong, visiting an Inuit family at Chesterfield Inlet, Hudson Bay. Photo taken by his colleague Norman Sanders on 10 November 1945.
After a brief stint as a stowaway on a Great Lakes ship, the Noronic -- the largest passenger ship of the Canadian Steamship Lines -- Strong decided to go to sea and rode freight trains across Canada to Vancouver.

Along the way, he heard the statement by Churchill and Roosevelt after their meeting on a ship in the Atlantic, that after the war they intended to create a United Nations to bring peace and justice to the world. He determined that this is what he would like to do with his life and it became his principal aspiration. He then followed closely news of the establishment of United Nations in San Francisco.

He left the Merchant Marine at his father’s insistence and returned home for another year. Then, in response to a newspaper advertisement, he obtained a job as an apprentice to a manager to the far northern trading post of the Hudson’s Bay Company.

There he developed a deep fondness for the Inuit people from who he learned a great deal, including their language. He was fascinated by their relationship with nature which had enabled them to survive and develop a distinctive culture in the harsh climate of the Arctic. He felt that the Inuit were a patient, persistant and innovative people, who had evolved a way of life and a value system that enabled them to live in harmony with their Arctic surroundings.


During this period, too, he began to collect rock samples, guided by a correspondence course for prospectors. This brought him to the attention of a flamboyantly adventurous American, Bill Richardson, who had arrived on the annual supply ship to prospect in the area. He invited Maurice to join him when he returned to Toronto where he lived with his wife, an heiress to an oil fortune.

Through them, Strong met with a leading U.N. official who arranged for him to have a temporary, very low-level appointment, which enabled him to realize his dream and serve as a junior security officer at the then UN headquarters in Lake Success, New York.

This confirmed Strong's belief that the United Nations was the place for him, but made him realize, too, that without sufficient education or political ties, he could not expect to rise up within the ranks. He decided the best course for him would be to return to Canada and try to develop there the qualifications that would enable him to return to the United Nations in a more substantive role.

He did this, first obtaining a role as a trainee analyst, and then specialist in oil and mineral resources for a leading brokerage firm, James Richardson & Sons. Moving to Calgary, Alberta, he became assistant to one of the most colorful and dramatically successful leaders of the oil industry, Jack Gallagher. He gave Strong the opportunity of learning the business from a more operational point of view and as the company, Dome Petroleum, grew, Strong occupied several key roles, including Vice President, Finance..

Africa visit

Maurice Strong with President Jomo Kenyatta
Kenya's first President, Jomo Kenyatta (third from left) welcomes Maurice Strong (right) as the first Executive Director of UNEP.
With his then wife, Pauline, he left Dome to take took a two year trip around the world and arrived in Nairobi, the capital of Kenya. Strong took up an assignment with Caltex to develop new service station sites, which gave him the opportunity to travel extensively in East Africa and see a good deal of the region's rich wildlife and its fascinating diversity of people.

In Nairobi, he was introduced to the work of YMCA, an orgnaization with which he would do much work later on. From East Africa, the Strongs took a slow boat to Calcutta and travelled extensively in India, including some time in the Himalayas. Afterwards, travelling through East Asia, including China and Japan, they arrived back in Canada in 1954.

On his return, Strong rejoined Dome. He also volunteered to work with the YMCA in its World Service Program, becoming national President and Chairman of the Extension and Intermovement Aid of the World Alliance of YMCAs.

His work with YMCA gave him the very first experience of participating in, and the chairing, international meetings and introduced him to the world of international development.

Here Strong met Tracy Strong, who was the Secretary General of the World Alliance headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland and a brother of Anna Louise Strong, the American journalist whose letters from China had been such a source of Strong’s early interest in China. Tracy Strong confirmed that he and Strong did indeed have a family relationship though somewhat distant, Strong was pleased to meet, too, his son, Robbins, of the World Council of Churches in Geneva.

Deciding that he wanted to do something on his own, he took over a very small and failing natural gas company, Ajax Petroleums, and built it into what became one of the leading companies in the industry, Norcen Resources. .

This attracted the attention of one of Canada’s principal investment corporations with extensive interests in the energy and utility businesses, Power Corporation of Canada. It appointed him initially as its Executive Vice President, then as President. His position at Power Corporation attracted national interest which enabled his views on Canada’s role in the world to be heard..

Foreign Affairs and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)

Maurice Strong Hanne Strong Nelson Mandela Gracha Marcel
Maurice and Hanne Strong with Graca Marcel and Nelson Mandela
Serving on many corporate boards, he also continued to develop his interest in foreign affairs and make speeches about Canada’s foreign policy, which he contended should concentrate on being a friend of the developing world. This brought him to the attention of the Minister of External Affairs, Paul Martin Senior, and Prime Minister Lester Pearson.

Pearson invited him to come into the government as a Deputy Minister with responsibility for what was then External Aid, and which, under his leadership, eventually became the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). His work at CIDA enabled him to return to the United Nations as a Canadian delegate, in which role he established close ties, particularly with its Development Programme.

In the meantime, his fascination with nature evolved into an interest in conservation. He saw the newly emerging environment movement as being closely related to development. This became increasingly clear to him as his involvement in the resources industry demonstrated how its development inflicted significant damage to the environment. It led eventually to his realization that it would only be through better and more responsible management of development that the environment could be protected.

Through his friendship with Paul Martin Sr, Strong met his talented and ambitious young son, Paul Martin Jr, and later hired him as his Executive Assistant at the Power Corporation. Their friendship has been a continuing one, even as young Paul became highly successful in his own right in the business world. Later, Paul Martin became Prime Minister of Canada.

Strong's work with CIDA gave him new insights into the complexities of development. He was troubled by the environmental and social disruption caused by major infrastructure projects, which CIDA supported. It wasn't long before he became involved with environmental politics..

The Stockholm Conference and UNEP


Indira Gandhi at the 1972 Stockholm Conference
Maurice Strong welcomes Indian Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, at 1972 Stockholm Conference.

In 1969, the UN General Assembly decided to convene the first major inter-governmental conference on environmental issues, the UN Conference on the Human Environment. The meeting was to be held in 1972, but by early 1970, hardly anything had happened. The Swedish government began to worry. Eventually their ambassador, Sverker Astrom, contacted Strong, through a mutual friend, Wayne Kines, who was a media consultuant to the UN. Astrom recommended Strong to Philippe de Seyne, the UN undersecretary general for economic and social affairs. Kines arranged a meeting between Strong and de Seyne.

UN Secretary-General, U Thant, invited Strong to lead it as Secretary-General of the Conference and as Undersecretary General of the UN responsible for environmental affairs. Strong turned the preparations for the Stockholm Conference around. He used his consummate diplomatic skills to obtain the support of the developing countries, who were extremely sceptical about environmental issues.

Strong scored a major diplomatic coup when he travelled to New Delhi and obtained the agreement of Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, to attend the conference. At Stockholm, Prime Minister Gandhi made one of the most influential speeches of the entire conference.

The Stockholm Conference was a resounding success. It adopted a Declaration of Principles and Action Plan to deal with global environmental issues. It put the environment issue on the international agenda and confirmed its close link with development. The Stockholm Conference moved into the history books as major landmark, launching a new era of international environmental diplomacy.

In December 1972, the UN General Assembly established the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and elected Strong to head it. The General Assembly also took a landmark decision to locate UNEP in Nairobi. Thus UNEP became the first ever UN agency to be headquartered in a developing country, rather than New York, Geneva or Vienna..

Return to Canada

Maurice Strong with Canada's charismatic Prime Minister, Pierre Trudeau and Ken Strong

In 1976, at the request of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Strong returned to Canada to head the newly created national oil company, PetroCanada. In an editorial the New York Times paid an exceptional tribute to his service to the U. N. He then became Chairman of the Canada Development Investment Corporation, the holding company for some of Canada’s principal government-owned corporations.

Returning to private life, Strong acquired effective control and became Chairman of AZL Resources Incorporated, which had large holdings of ranch lands in the United States, including a major land development in the San Luis Valley of Colorado.

Returning to Canada, his role in leading the UN’s famine relief program in Africa was the first in a series of UN advisory assignments, including reform and his appointment as Secretary General of the UN Conference on Environment and Development -- best known as the Earth Summit -- held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. This was a landmark event attended by more heads of government than had ever met together before, as well as more media and non-governmental representatives.

After intense negotiations, the Earth Summit produced Agreement on Conventions on Climate Change and Bio-diversity and launched a process which produced a Convention on Desertification. .

Particularly noteworthy, too, was the Agreement reached on a set of principles to set the world on the pathway to sustainable development and a program of action, known as Agenda 21, as the agreed basis for cooperative action to move implement them..

Maurice Strong with Condoleezza Rice
Maurice Strong with the US Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice

After the Earth Summit, Strong continued to take a leading role in implementing the results of Rio through establishment of the Earth Council, the Earth Charter movement, his Chairmanship of the World Resources Institute, Membership on the Board of the International Institute for Sustainable Development, the Stockholm Environment Institute, the African-American Institute, the Institute of Ecology in Indonesia, the Beijer Institute of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and others. Strong was a longtime Foundation Director of the World Economic Forum, a Senior Advisor to the President of the World Bank, a Member of the International Advisory of Toyota Motor Corporation, the Advisory Council for the Center for International Development of Harvard University, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, the World Conservation Union (IUCN), the World Wildlife Fund, Resources for the Future, and the Eisenhower Fellowships. .

Strong public service activities were carried out mainly on a pro bono basis, made possible by his business activities. From December 1992 through 1995, Strong served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Ontario Hydro, then North America’s largest electric power utility. During this period, the company made the transition from the largest loss in its history and rising rates to its largest ever profit which allowed lower rates to be established and major programs for efficiency and sustainability to be undertaken..

University of Peace

In 1999, at the request of then UN Secretary-General, Perez de Cuelar, Strong took on the task of trying to restore the viability of the University for Peace, headquartered in Costa Rica, which was established under the authorization of the UN General Assembly, although not a UN organization as such. The UN’s reputation was as risk as the organization had been subjected to severe mismanagement, misappropriation of funds and inoperative governance. As Chairman of its governing body, the Council, and initially as Rector, Strong led the process of revitalizing the University for Peace and helped to rebuild its programs and leadership. He retired from the Council in the spring of 2007.

From 2003 and 2005, Strong served as the personal envoy U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan to lead support for the international response to the humanitarian and development needs of the Democratic People/s Republic of Korea (North Korea). As an essential contribution to the prospects for a peaceful settlement of the long-standing conflict on the Korean Peninsular. .


Maurice Strong greets Chinese President Hu Jin Tao
The President of China, Hu Jin Tao, greets Maurice Strong

Strong, from his earliest days, had a deep interest in and fascination for China and has been going to China for more than 40 years in various capacities, personal, United Nations, World Bank and business.

He now spends most of his time there and is active as an advisor and business relationships in the environment, energy, and technology sectors. His principal activities are centered at Peking University, where he is an active Honorary Professor, as well as Honorary Chairman of its Environmental Foundation and Chairman of the Advisory Board of the Institute for Research on Security and Sustainability for Northeast Asia, following up on his experience with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea).

Indeed, Secretary-General Kofi Annan, near the end of his term, paid the following tribute to Strong:

“Looking back on our time together, we have shared many trials and tribulations and I am grateful that I had the benefit of your global vision and wise counsel on many critical issues, not least the delicate question of the Korean Peninsula and China’s changing role in the world. Your unwavering commitment to the environment, multilateralism and peaceful resolution of conflicts is especially appreciated.”

Message from the Maurice Strong/IUCN Environmental Dialogue, 1st and 2 July 2009



On 1 and 2 July 2009, 100 leaders from around the world came together at the Headquarters of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in Gland, Switzerland. They included a broad range from the early days of the international environment movement to key players in the twenties. They (see attached list) debated Climate Change and the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen this December.1


The participants believe that there are critical linkages between poverty and environment, climate change and development. In 2009, the world is facing such severe crises as a result of these combinations that we should be talking about a paradigm shift in tackling Climate Change as a solution.

The discussions recognized the importance of the year 2009 for international climate change policy, but also stressed that we need to be thinking beyond the end of this year. One of the key issues raised was: “what will we do on 1 January 2010?”, and the key players at the Copenhagen Summit must “move from words to action” - urgency is key.

Copenhagen will succeed or fail on political will. It needs to be focused on a long-term vision and related mechanisms, not on immediate details. A detailed agreement with numbers and figures can be defined later.

2010 is the year of Biodiversity. In October 2010 there will be a Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Nagoya, Japan. Like Copenhagen, this gathering needs to be about action, not analysis. The same need for concrete action applies to the possibility of a Rio+20 conference and IUCN’s World Conservation Congress in 2012 and the 2015 review of the Millennium Development Goals. So many meetings, so much talk. We may be slipping past the point of no return. We cannot risk that.

Political realities

The US administration is back at the negotiation table, after a long period of silence and deliberate non-participation. The political will of the Obama Government has been shown by the recent passing of the Waxman-Markey Climate Change Bill in the US House of Representatives. However, the victory was fragile and there is an urgent need to win strong national support, both in the US Senate and by the public at large.

China and India are introducing national legislation that is, in some cases, more stringent than similar regulations in Europe or the USA. Legislation to curb emissions, promotion of public transport, green architecture and construction are all areas where the emerging economies of China and India seem to be further advanced than the governments of many OECD countries

Finding solutions

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) can be a deployable, cost-effective means to reduce greenhouse emissions. The additional benefits of the conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks were also acknowledged (this is generally described as REDD+), as this can provide benefits to adaptation and livelihoods, as well as conserving biodiversity. The potential of both funds and markets should be harnessed to finance REDD+.

Ecosystems can help us adapt to the effects of climate change. Ecosystem-based adaptation examples include restoring mangrove forests and coral reefs to protect against storm surges, regenerating floodplains to deal with excess river flows and sustainable agriculture to maintain local food supplies. Such solutions are accessible, cost-effective. These are immediate solutions that can be deployed by local communities to increase their resilience in the face of climate change.

Political will is needed to promote investments in ecosystem based adaptation solutions. The conservation community must work with politicians, business leaders and the general public to increase understanding and awareness on the concept and its relevance to human livelihoods.

Energy futures

Energy efficiency is the number one priority to rapidly reduce carbon emissions. A range of complementary drivers from regulation and financing and matching incentives to research and innovation in new materials are required.

Access to relevant and up-to-date information about all energy sources and alternative technologies is needed. Reliable renewable energy sources are now technically available. They are technically advanced and suited to broad commercial distribution. They should be made accessible and affordable to the public, accompanied by continuous investment in innovation for new energy technologies.

Political will is required to help push through necessary energy reforms and investments. This will be simplified by the creation of jobs through renewable technology.

Institutions and governance

New governance structures are needed, rejecting both ‘entitlement’ of funds and old-fashioned aid approaches. Partner countries should be in the driving seat, but certain mechanisms for mutual-accountability are required. Approaches could include the Compact Approach2 as proposed by the UK or delivering development assistance through budget support as adopted by many OECD countries.

In order to make headway with the critical issues of climate change and development, “silo-approaches” must be abandoned. Integration and inter-sector collaboration is urgently needed. This should be done at global, national and local level, but only political will can make this happen.

Imagination and innovation is needed to develop alternative approaches and new instruments, such as Sustainable Drawing Rights over common goods; payments for maintenance and improvements of ecosystem services; rewards for non-emissions and penalties in line with the ‘polluter-pays-principle’.


Financing climate change must be a part of traditional development funding. Adaptation to the effects of climate change in the developing world is all about poverty reduction, but this has not been sufficiently recognized in the climate change negotiation process.

Official Development Assistance (ODA) therefore needs to be increased, and climate funding should be added to the 0.7% Gross National Income goal for ODA. Development aid should focus on building capacity and strengthening resilience, at national and sub-national level of the partner country.

Money should be used for transformation, better integration and the breaking of the traditional silo approach. It should focus on supporting locally driven action through the subsidiarity principle 3, creation and support to Public-Private-Civil society partnerships and cross-country sharing of lessons learned. Funds should also be directed towards safeguarding ecosystems, the goods and services they provide.

Awareness, communication and education

Scientists have a lot of information on climate change and its impacts. However, politicians and the general public have not yet accepted that they need to make certain lifestyle sacrifices. Effective political and public policy actions tend to follow rather than lead the change in consumer attitudes. Communications programmes that focus on influencing cultural behavior are key to educational efforts to influence policy decisions.

Scientists, conservationists and climate change experts struggle at getting the message out in a clear, coherent and effective way. They need partners from corporations and agencies that have proven skills in changing consumer culture and behavior

Education and awareness should be focused on key groups including youth. In order to effectively reach out to them, web-based instruments should be used like Facebook, Youtube and Twitter, the radio, mobile phones, video games, virtual marches, etc.

The participants from around the world who were present at the Gland meeting believe that action is needed now and are committed to be involved in practical ways to bring about the changes needed.

List of Participants

The Maurice Strong/IUCN Environmental Dialogue:
Confirmed Participants as of 30 June 2009

First Name Surname Short Description
Hussain Aga Khan Prince, Senior Advisor to the Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan Fund for the Environment and member of the Aga Khan Development Network Committee
Bruce Alberts Editor-in-Chief, Science Magazine, former President, National Academy of Sciences, USA
Lucas Assuncao Coordinator Climate Change and BIOTRADE Initiative UNCTAD
Deva-Marie Beck CEO, The Nightingale Initiative for Global Health(NIGH)
Margot Bennett-Mathieson Global Ambassador, Kids Internet Safety Alliance
Paul Berthoud Former Head of UNEP Environment Fund and Administration (TBC)
Ton Boon von Ochssee Netherlands Ambassador to Kuwait, former IUCN Councillor
David Boyer Senior Director, Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan Fund for the Environment
Reto Braun Chairman, Earth Council, Geneva
John A. Campion Governor, Law Society of Upper Canada
Adrienne Clarkson Former Governor General of Canada and co-chair of the Institute for Canadian Citizenship
Suzan Craig Tahi, New Zealand
BirgittaBirgitta DahlDahl Former Minister for Energy and former Minister for Former Minister for Energy and former Minister for Environment, Sweden
Nitin Desai Distinguished Fellow of The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and member of Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change, India
Don de Silva Director, Changeways International
Hama Arba Diallo Former Executive Secretary of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
Paula DiPerna President, Chicago Climate Exchange International and Executive Vice President, Chicago Climate Exchange
Ahmed Djoghlaf Secretary General, UN Convention on Biological Diversity.
Felix Dodds Executive Director, Stakeholder Forum
Elizabeth Dowdeswell Former Executive Director, UNEP
Marco Dunand President and Group CEO, Mercuria Energy Trading
Sylvia Earle Oceanographer and former Chief Scientist, US NOAA. Former IUCN Councillor
Mohamed El Ashry Senior Fellow with the UN Foundation and former CEO and Chairman of the Global Environment Facility
Poul Engberg-Pedersen Director General, Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation - Norad
Lars-Göran Engfeldt Ambassador and former Chief Negotiator for global environment and sustainable development issues for the Swedish Ministry of Environment
Christina Engfeldt Head of the FAO office for the Nordic countries and former information director of FAO
José Maria Figueres Olsen Former President, Costa Rica
Daniel Foa Co-founder 51Give.com
John Forgàch Chairman of the Equator Group, New York
Irene Freudenschuss-Reichl Director-General for Development Cooperation, Austria
Walter Fust CEO, Global Humanitarian Forum and former Director-General, Swiss Development Cooperation
Branislav Gosovic Former Head of South Centre, Geneva
Camilla Hall CEO, Diane Fay
Mark Halle European Director of International Institute of Sustainable Development ( IISD)
Simon Hobbs Moderator of panel discussion, Presenter of 'The Leaders', CNBC Europe
Luc Hoffmann President of MAVA Foundation, Switzerland
Nay Htun Research Professor, State University of New York at Stony Brook. And Former UN Assistant - Secretary General, UNDP, UNEP
Bill Jackson Deputy Director-General, IUCN
Yolanda Kakabadse President-elect, WWF International; Former Minister for Environment, Equador and former President of IUCN
Ashok Khosla IUCN President and Chair of Development Alternatives, India
Rehka Khosla Conscious Tourism
Wayne Kines President, World Media Institute and Nightingale Initiative for Global Health Director, Global Communications
Maritta Koch-Weser President, Earth3000 and former Director General, IUCN
Panchapakesan Krishnamurthy Former Head of Human Resources, University for Peace
Young Hoon Kwaak Architect and President, World Citizen Organisation
Catherine Labouchère President of the Liberal Political Party in Vaud, Switzerland
Jonathan Lash President, World Resources Institute
Louis Leeburg Board Treasurer, Institute of Noetic Sciences and Director, Light-Path Industries
Alexander Likhotal President, Green Cross International
Geoffrey Lipman Special advisor to the Secretary-General of the World Tourism Organization
Ruud Lubbers Former Prime Minister of the Netherlands and former United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Jim MacNeill Canadian consultant, environmentalist, and international public servant, including Secretary General of the Brundtland Commission 1984-1987
Andrei Marcu President and CEO of the International Emissions Trading Association
Amalio Marichalar Count of Ripalda and President of Soria 21 Forum, Spain
Claude Martin Former Director-General, WWF International
Julia Marton-Lefèvre Director-General, IUCN
Ehsan Masood Writer and journalist. Consulting editor, Nature
Marc Nerfin Secretary-General's Chef de Cabinet for the 1972 Stockholm Conference
Hui Ng Chinese social entrepreneur, co-founder of 51Give and 51Sim
Marie-Louise Overvad Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Denmark to the United Nations in Geneve
Ameena Payne Former Director, University for Peace office in Geneva
Miguel Pestana Vice-President Global External Affairs, Unilever
John Preston CEO of Continuum Energy Technologies LLC and Senior Lecturer at Massachusetts of Technology
Barbara Pyle Media Strategist and Award winning Film Producer, Formerly Vice President of Environmental. Policy at TBS and CNN's Environmental Editor. Founder and former Chair of the Board of the Captain Planet Foundation.
Juan Rada Senior Vice President, Global Public Sector, Healthcare & Education Industries Business Unit, Oracle Corporation
John Ralston Saul Author of "The Collapse of Globalism" and co-chair of the Institute for Canadian Citizenship
Nicholas Rhode Parker Executive Chairman, Cleantech Group LLC
José Romero Head of Rio-Conventions Section Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN), Switzerland
Dave Runnalls President, IISD
Mohamed Sahnoun Founder and Chair, Advisory Council of the Caux Forum for Human Security and former UN/OAU Special Representative for the Great Lakes region of Africa
Johan Schaar Director Commission on Climate Change and Development, Sweden and IUCN Councillor
Ursula Schäfer-Preuss Vice President, Knowledge Management and Sustainable Development, Asian Development Bank, Manilla, Philippines
Hilde Schwab President and Co-Founder, Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship
Klaus Schwab President and founder of the World Economic Forum
Mahendra Shah Senior Scientist and Coordinator of United Nations Relations at IIASA
Michelle Slaney Advisor, Ministry of Climate and Energy, Denmark
Juan Somavia Director-General of International Labour Organization (ILO)
Nicholas Sonntag Executive VP Corporate Development, Westport Innovations Inc and President, Westport Asia
Gus Speth Dean, Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, former Administrator, UNDP
Daniel Stauffacher Chairman, ICT4Peace Foundation and Special Advisor to the Swiss Government on Business and Environmental Technology Cooperation
Andrew Steer Director General, Policy and Research Department for International Development (DFID), UK
Maurice Strong Secretary General of 1972 Stockholm Conference and 1992 Rio Earth Summit
Hanne Strong Executive Director, Earth Restoration Corps
Kenneth Strong Principal, Cosmos International Inc
Pavan Sukhdev Managing Director and Head of Deutsche Bank’s Global Markets business in India and Team Leader of The Economics of Ecosystems & Biodiversity study -TEEB
Yasushi Takase Minister, Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations in Geneva
Anada Tiega Secretary-General, Convention on Wetlands
Mustafa K. Tolba President, Arab Forum for Environment and Development and former Director-General, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Camilla Toulmin Director, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)
Dan Tunstall Director, International Cooperation and Senior Fellow, People and Ecosystems Program, World Resources Institute
Mirian Vilela Executive Director, Earth Charter International and Earth Charter Center for Education for Sustainable Development at University for Peace, Costa Rica
Jan-Olaf Willums Founder of Inspire, a sustainable investment program involved in solar and electric cars. Vice Chair of the Bellagio Forum for Sustainable Development
Joe Zammit-Lucia Physician, entrepreneur, author and conceptual artist focused on environmental issues

On 2 July, the meeting was joined by: Maria Ivanova, Director, Global Environmental Governance Project, and the group of emerging environmental leaders taking part in the Global Environmental Governance Forum